Tourette Syndrome

Tourette syndrome is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder that leads to repetitive and involuntary movements as well as unwanted vocal outbursts.

  • What is Tourette?
  • Tourette & cannabinoids
  • Text references, literature discussion
    & clinical trials

What is Tourette Syndrome?

Definition
Tourette syndrome is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder that leads to repetitive and involuntary movements as well as unwanted vocal outbursts. Depending on the severity of the tics, Tourette can interfere with most aspects of life including communication, daily functioning, and overall quality of life.1

Symptoms
The symptoms of Tourette may involve movement (motor tics) and sounds (vocal tics) and can be divided into groups depending on their severity. Symptoms of Tourette vary in frequency and can occur during sleep and change over time. Often, the symptoms are the worst in the early teenage years and improve with age. Currently, a cure is not available for Tourette syndrome, though different treatments are available that can benefit patients to a different extent. However, not all patients suffering from Tourette benefit from present treatments.1

  • Simple tics
    Repetitive and brief tics involving fewer muscle groups
  • Complex tics
    Different and coordinated patterns of tics involving several muscle groups

Cause
Today, the exact cause of Tourette is unknown as the disorder is highly complex. However, several factors can be involved in the development of Tourette such as a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Neurotransmitters that are signaling molecules in the nervous system including dopamine. and serotonin. may be involved in the development of Tourette. In addition, men are up to four times more likely to develop the disorder.1

  • Cannabinoids
  • Cannabinoid receptors
  • Endocannabinoids
  • THC
  • CB1
  • CB2
  • Terpenes
  • Strains
  • Enzymes
  • Metabolites

Terpenes

Strains

Synthesizing & Degrading Enzymes

Metabolites

The connection between Tourette Syndrome
& cannabinoids

Tourettes

Up to this date, there are only two controlled trials available that aim to study whether THC can be effective in the treatment of Tourette syndrome.
To determine whether cannabinoids can be effective in the treatment of Tourette, longer trials with a larger number of patients are needed.
However, many experts stated that treatment with cannabinoids like THC can be taken into consideration when first-line medications do not produce significant effects e.g. did not improve the tics. 2

Note: If you have any further information relevant to the connection between Tourette syndrome and cannabinoids, or find any of the information inaccurate, outdated or incomplete please contact us here.

Text references, literature discussion
& clinical trials

  • Text references
  • Literature discussion
  • Clinical trials
Clinical trials

A structured interview was used to evaluate the effect of nicotine, alcohol, and marijuana in patients (n=47) with Tourette syndrome. 85% and 69% of patients noted improvement when using cannabis and alcohol, respectively. Only 7% of patients reported symptomatic relief from Tourette’s when consuming nicotine (Müller-Vahl et al., 1997).

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included people with Tourette syndrome to assess the effect of THC. It was found that symptomatic relief was produced upon treatment with up to 10 mg THC/day (Müller-Vahl et al., 2003).

References

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