Prostate Cancer

The most common type of cancer only found in males which takes place in the prostate. The prostate is a gland that produces the seminal fluid that is a part of semen.

  • What is Prostate Cancer?
  • Prostate Cancer & cannabinoids
  • Text references, literature discussion
    & clinical trials

What is Prostate Cancer?

Definition
Prostate Cancer is the most common type of cancer only found in males which takes place in the prostate. The prostate is a gland that produces the seminal fluid that is a part of semen.1

Symptoms
Prostate cancer may have no symptoms in earlier stages but if not detected early enough, cancer may cause:1

  • Difficulty urinating
  • Reduced urine stream
  • Blood in semen
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Blood in semen
  • Discomfort in the pelvic area
  • Pain in bones

Cause
Currently, the exact cause of prostate cancer is not yet known. As other types of cancer, prostate cancer involves the growth of abnormal cells that contain mutations leading to uncontrollable cell division and growth. Similarly, it can spread and damage/destroy normal tissue.  Factors that can increase the risk of prostate cancer are:1

  • Age
    The risk of prostate cancer increases with age
  • Race
    Research has shown that prostate cancer is more common and progressive in black men
  • Heredity

Family history may increase the risk of prostate cancer development

  • Obesity
    Progressive prostate cancer is more likely in obese men
  • Cannabinoids
  • Cannabinoid receptors
  • Endocannabinoids

  • CBD
  • THC
  • CB1
  • CB2
  • GPR55
  • PPARγ
  • TRPV1
  • 2AG
  • Anandamide
  • Terpenes
  • Strains
  • Enzymes
  • Metabolites
  • Humulene
  • Limonene

Strains

Synthesizing & Degrading Enzymes

Metabolites

The connection between Prostate Cancer
& cannabinoids

Prostate Cancer Xray

Preclinical evidence proposes that the cannabinoids THC and CBD may be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer. This could be due to the high expression of both CB1 and CB2 receptor in prostate cancer cells, meaning that the endocannabinoid system is a possible target for treatments.2

Note: If you have any further information relevant to the connection between Prostate Cancer and cannabinoids, or find any of the information inaccurate, outdated, or incomplete please contact us here.

Text references, literature discussion
& clinical trials

  • Text references
  • Literature discussion
  • Clinical trials
Review

Prostate cancer cells highly express CB1 and CB2 receptors.

High expression of these receptors was shown to increase in the most aggressive cancer cells (Orellana-Serradell et al., 2015; Thors et al., 2010).

Expression of receptors such as CB1, CB2, and TRPV1 may be used as a prognostic factor in prostate cancer cells (Chung et al., 2009; Czifra et al., 2008; Fowler et al., 2010, 2013).

It was shown that prostate cancer cells can be suppressed by cannabinoids such as 2-AG, Anandamide, THC, and CBD via CB1 receptor inducing phosphatase-dependent apoptosis (De Petrocellis et al., 2013; Mimeault et al., 2003; Nithipatikom et al., 2004, 2011; Sreevalsan et al., 2011).

In vivo and in vitro models of prostatic cancer cells, CB1 and CB2 agonists also exhibit anti-proliferative activities (De Petrocellis et al., 2013; Mimeault et al., 2003; Nithipatikom et al., 2011; Olea-Herrero et al., 2009a, 2009b).
It has also been reported that cell proliferation can be regulated by the novel receptor GPR55 (Piñeiro et al., 2011).

Cannabinoid receptor-induced apoptosis and anti-proliferative effects can be regulated by Erk and Akt signaling pathways (Cipriano et al., 2013; Orellana-Serradell et al., 2015; Sarfaraz et al., 2006).

Furthermore, it was demonstrated that synthetic cannabinoids exhibit apoptosis and anti-proliferation activity through oxidative stress, PPARy, and CB1 receptors (Morales et al., 2013; Sarfaraz et al., 2005).

References
Clinical trials

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