CBD addition (1nM-3μM) to the lung cancer cell lines (A549, H358, and H460), upregulated ICAM-1 and TIMP-1 through TRPV1. In mice carrying human lung cancer xenografts, CBD presence caused a 2.6 and 3.0 fold increase of ICAM-1 and TIMP-1 protein, suppressing lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis (Ramer et al., 2012).
In cancer cell lines (A549 and H460) and human metastatic lung cancer cells, it was shown that ICAM-mediated Lymphokine-Activated Killer cell adhesion and cancer cell lysis can be induced by CBD and THC (Haustein et al., 2014).
In lung cancer cell lines (A549, H460) and human lung cancer cells, it was found that apoptotic cell death can be induced by CBD through COX-2 and PPARγ. Furthermore, in A549-xenografted nude mice, it was shown that tumor regression can be caused by CBD (Ramer et al., 2013).