Inflammation

Inflammation is an immune process involved in the body combating harmful situations such as pathogens and injuries.

  • What is Inflammation?
  • Inflammation & cannabinoids
  • Text references, literature discussion
    & clinical trials

What is Inflammation?

Definition
Inflammation is an immune process involved in the body combating harmful situations such as pathogens and injuries. However, the body can mistakenly perceive its own cells and tissue as harmful, causing autoimmune inflammatory diseases.1

Symptoms1
Acute symptoms of inflammation in the affected area of the body may include:

  • Pain
  • Redness
  • Loss of movement and function
  • Swelling
  • Increased heat

Cause
Inflammation occurs when the body becomes exposed to an infection or injury. When the body detects damage or pathogens, our immune system uses defense mechanisms to combat harmful situations. Plasma proteins are accumulated by tissues, resulting in a buildup of fluid that leads to swelling. The immune cells release neutrophils (i.e. white blood cells), which are the first line of immune defense against pathogens. Neutrophils migrate towards the affected area and they contain molecules that can help combat foreign intruders. The affected area can be more easily reached by leukocytes and plasma proteins when small blood vessels enlarge.1

  • Cannabinoids
  • Cannabinoid receptors
  • Endocannabinoids
  • THC
  • CBD
  • THCV
  • CB1
  • CB2
  • GPR55
  • TRPV1
  • TRPA1
  • PPARγ
  • Anandamide
  • 2AG
  • OEA
  • PEA
  • Terpenes
  • Strains
  • Enzymes
  • Metabolites
  • Caryophyllene

Strains

  • MAGL
  • DAGL
  • FAAH

Metabolites

The connection between Inflammation
& cannabinoids

Inflammation Graphic

It is observed that one of the primary functions of the endocannabinoid system is to balance inflammation in the body, suggesting that cannabinoids may be used as therapeutics in the treatment of inflammation. Preclinical research proposes that the cannabinoid CBD and to a smaller extent, THC may be effective in the treatment of inflammation. Furthermore, some research showed that CB2 is a leading receptor in controlling inflammation, but other receptors play a role as well.2

In addition, the CB2 receptor is found in immune cells suggesting that cannabinoids play an important role in the regulation of the immune system and thereby inflammation.3

Note: If you have any further information relevant to the connection between Inflammation and cannabinoids, or find any of the information inaccurate, outdated, or incomplete please contact us here.

Text references, literature discussion
& clinical trials

  • Text references
  • Literature discussion
  • Clinical trials
Review

In rats, a significant decrease in total leukocyte number and a significant fall in total numbers of T, B, and both T helper and T cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets were caused by repeated administration of CBD (IP) at a dose of 5 mg/kg.

The total numbers of NK and NKT cells that are involved in the primary, nonspecific antiviral, and antitumor immune response were not affected by this immunosuppressive effect. In contrast, the total and percentage of NKT cell numbers, and the percentage number of NK cells were shown to be increased by CBD administration. These findings indicate that repeated treatment with CBD suppresses specific immunity through decreasing T, B, T cytotoxic, and T helper cell numbers. Also, nonspecific antiviral and antitumor immune responses related to NK and NKT cells may be increased upon repeated treatment with CBD (Ignatowska-Jankowska et al., 2009).

GPR55 receptors are expressed by human macrophages. Stimulation of GPR55 in human macrophages can enhance lipid accumulation, block cholesterol efflux, and exhibit pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic properties. CBD can counteract these effects through blocking GPR55, proposing that CBD may be used as a therapeutic potential (Lanuti et al., 2015).

In the mouse collagen model of arthritis, inflammation was suppressed by CBD in a dose-dependent manner (Malfait et al., 2000).

References
Clinical trials

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