Glioblastoma

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly progressive tumor and type of brain cancer that can develop in the brain or spinal cord. The cancer is highly progressive as the glioblastoma tumors create their own blood supply supporting the growth and have the potential to invade normal brain tissue.

  • What is Glioblastoma?
  • Glioblastoma & cannabinoids
  • Text references, literature discussion
    & clinical trials

What is Glioblastoma?

Definition
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly progressive tumor and type of brain cancer that can develop in the brain or spinal cord. The cancer is highly progressive as the glioblastoma tumors create their own blood supply supporting the growth and have the potential to invade normal brain tissue.1

Symptoms:2

  • Frequent and persistent headaches
  • Seizures
  • Purging
  • Double or blurred vision
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Changes in personality or mood

Cause
The exact cause of glioblastoma is not yet known. However, 3 risk factors have been identified:2

  • Age
    With age, the risk of developing glioblastoma increases, and most commonly cancer emerges in the age range 45-65-year-old
  • Exposure to radiation
  • Family history of glioblastoma
  • Cannabinoids
  • Cannabinoid receptors
  • Endocannabinoids

  • CBD
  • THC
  • CB1
  • CB2
  • GPR55
  • TRPV1
  • TRPV2
  • Terpenes
  • Strains
  • Enzymes
  • Metabolites

Terpenes

Strains

Synthesizing & Degrading Enzymes

Metabolites

The connection between Glioblastoma
& cannabinoids

Glioblastoma Brain Cancer Xray Scan

Preclinical- and clinical data propose that the cannabinoids THC and CBD may be therapeutic in the treatment of glioblastoma as both in vitro. and in vivo. studies found cannabinoids to have anti-tumor properties.3

In addition, a recent review found that cannabinoids may reduce tumor growth through suppressing tumor proliferation and angiogenesis and stimulation of tumor cell death.4

Note: If you have any further information relevant to the connection between Glioblastoma and cannabinoids, or find any of the information inaccurate, outdated or incomplete please contact us here.

Text references, literature discussion
& clinical trials

  • Text references
  • Literature discussion
  • Clinical trials
Review

Cannabinoid receptors connected to cell viability are expressed by glial cells (Stella, 2010).

Cancer cells overexpress cannabinoid receptors such as CB2 and GPR55 compared to non-cancer glial cells.

There is a correlation between this overexpression and disease prognosis where higher overexpression of CB2 being observed in most aggressive tumors (Calatozzolo et al., 2007; Ellert-Miklaszewska et al., 2007; Sánchez et al., 2001).

Several glioblastoma studies reported that CBD also exhibited anti-cancer activities.

CBD was shown to exhibit antiproliferative and anti-invasive activities on glioblastoma cells and stimulate differentiation of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) and apoptosis process (Hernán Pérez de la Ossa et al., 2013; Nabissi et al., 2015).

In glioma xenografts, tumor growth was reduced by about 20% upon CBD (7.5 mg/kg/day). 7.5 mg/kg/day of THC showed similar effects and combined administration of THC and CBD decreased tumor growth to a higher extent (Torres et al., 2011).

In human glioblastoma cell lines, cancer cell viability and proliferation were reduced by CBD (Deng et al., 2016).

CBD was also found to be involved in ameliorating the effectiveness of other anti-cancer drugs like temozolomide, carmustine, or doxorubicin via TRPV-2 (Nabissi et al., 2013).

References
Clinical trials

A pilot clinical study (pilot phase I trial) included nine patients with recurrent glioblastoma to evaluate cannabinoid antitumoral action. It was found that cannabinoid delivery is safe and exhibits promising tumor-shrinking effects. Larger scale clinical studies are needed to assess the real anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids in patients suffering from glioblastoma (Guzmán et al., 2006).

References

Want to know more about Glioblastoma?

Then signup our FREE newsletter below