Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that lead to abnormally high pressure in the eye which can cause optic nerve damage. Glaucoma can lead to irreversible blindness, however, vision loss may be slowed down or prevented.

  • What is Glaucoma?
  • Glaucoma & cannabinoids
  • Text references, literature discussion
    & clinical trials

What is Glaucoma?

Definition
Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that lead to abnormally high pressure in the eye, which can cause optic nerve damage. Glaucoma can lead to irreversible blindness, but if the disease is discovered before an advanced state, vision loss can be slowed down or prevented.1

Symptoms
The signs and symptoms of glaucoma depend on the type and stage of the disease.1

Open-angle glaucoma

  • Blind spots in the central vision or in the side
  • Tunnel vision

Acute angle-closure glaucoma

  • Severe headache
  • Nausea and purging
  • Eye pain
  • Eye redness
  • Halos around lights

Cause
Damage to the optic nerve causes glaucoma. As this nerve exacerbates, it results in the development of blind spots in the visual field. Increased pressure in the eye is caused by a buildup of fluid either due to overproduction or the drainage system working improperly (i.e. the fluid is not allowed to flow out in a normal manner.1

  • Cannabinoids
  • Cannabinoid receptors
  • Endocannabinoids

  • THC
  • Δ8THC
  • 11-OH-Δ9-THC
  • CBG
  • CBN

  • CB1
  • GPR18
  • GPR119

  • 2AG
  • 2OG
  • Terpenes
  • Strains
  • Enzymes
  • Metabolites

Terpenes

Strains

  • MAGL

Metabolites

The connection between Glaucoma
& cannabinoids

Glaucoma Eye Graphic Description

It was shown that the cannabinoids THC, CBG, and CBN have the potential to decrease intraocular pressure in patients suffering from glaucoma. THC was found to have the best potential in the treatment of glaucoma.2

Note: If you have any further information relevant to the connection between Glaucoma and cannabinoids, or find any of the information inaccurate, outdated or incomplete please contact us here.

Text references, literature discussion
& clinical trials

  • Text references
  • Literature discussion
  • Clinical trials
Review

In mice, 2-oleoylglycerol (2OG) was shown to interact with GPR119 and lower intraocular pressure giving new potential targets in glaucoma treatment (Miller et al., 2017).

Similarly, increasing 2AG through suppression of MAGL also lowered intraocular pressure but in a CB1-dependent way (Alapafuja et al., 2018; Miller et al., 2016).

In mice, intraocular pressure was shown to be lowered by 30% through stimulating CB1 (Miller et al., 2018b).

References
Clinical trials

A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, 4-way crossover study included six patients to evaluate the effect of oromucosal administration of cannabinoids on intraocular pressure. It was found that intraocular pressure was significantly reduced by THC after two hours, while 20 mg CBD did not produce significant effects and 40mg CBD enhanced intraocular pressure (Tomida et al., 2006).

In eight healthy volunteers, intraocular pressure was reduced by THC (7.5 mg). Retinal blood flow was also shown to be improved by the same cannabinoid (Plange et al., 2007).

In eighteen patients, intraocular pressure was reduced when smoking cannabis (Merritt et al., 1980).

References

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