Functional Gastro-Intestinal Disorders

Functional Gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are a common group of gastro-intestinal disorders that lead to abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, etc.

  • What is FGID?
  • FGID & cannabinoids
  • Text references, literature discussion
    & clinical trials

What are Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders?

Definition
Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGID) are a common group of gastrointestinal disorders that lead to abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, etc.1
It is a complex but common group of diseases that interfere with everyday activities and quality of life as the symptoms can be severe. 2


Symptoms

Symptoms of FGID can vary to a great extent. The most common symptoms are:2

  • Feeling exceptionally full after a meal
  • Little appetite/feeling full too quickly
  • Epigastric pain or burning – discomfort right below the ribs


Cause
Most commonly, morphologic and physiological abnormalities are used to diagnose FGIDs. These abnormalities can include a combination of motility disturbance, visceral hypersensitivity, altered mucosal and immune function, altered gut microbiota, and altered central nervous system processing.3

  • Cannabinoids
  • Cannabinoid receptors
  • Endocannabinoids

  • CBD
  • THC
  • CBG
  • THCV

  • CB1
  • CB2
  • GPR55
  • TRPV1
  • TRPV2
  • TRPV3
  • TRPV4
  • TRPA1
  • TRPM8
  • PPARγ

  • 2AG
  • OEA
  • PEA
  • Anandamide
  • Terpenes
  • Strains
  • Enzymes
  • Metabolites

  • Limonene

  • FAAH
  • DAGL

The connection between FGID & cannabinoids

Functional Gastro Intestial Disorder Xray

Preclinical evidence proposes that the cannabinoids THC, CBD, CBG, and THCV may be therapeutic in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders as the endocannabinoid system may be involved in the function of the gastrointestinal tract and the regulation of bowel movement.4

Note: If you have any further information relevant to the connection between FGID and cannabinoids, or find any of the information inaccurate, outdated or incomplete please contact us here.

Text references, literature discussion
& clinical trials

  • Text references
  • Literature discussion
  • Clinical trials
Review

Intracerebrovascular application of anandamide and 2AG may exhibit gastroprotective effects in ethanol-induced ulcers, proposing that endocannabinoids play a role in the central nervous system (Gyires and Zádori, 2016).

TRP receptors (TRPV1-4, TRPA1, TRPM8) are involved in pain sensation but may also play a role in inflammation. It was shown that there is an interaction between TRPs and cannabinoids (endo and phytocannabinoids) with varying affinities (De Petrocellis et al., 2011, 2012). This means that TRPs can be excellent targets and plant cannabinoids excellent substrates to manage pain and inflammation.

Cannabinoids like THCV, CBD, and CBG were shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities in experimental intestinal inflammation (Alhouayek and Muccioli, 2012).

In the TNBS mouse model of colitis, colitis was observed to be attenuated by CBD (5 mg/kg i.p. twice daily for three days). Furthermore, the same cannabinoid was found to promote endothelial, and epithelial wound healing (Krohn et al., 2016).

References
Clinical trials

In a 13-patient trial, weight, the perception of general health, and the ability to perform daily tasks were increased when using inhaled cannabis (Lahat et al., 2012).

References

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