Depression

Depression also known as major depressive disorder is a mental disorder that affects how one feels, thinks and behaves and can lead to other emotional and physical problems.

  • What is Depression?
  • Depression & cannabinoids
  • Text references, literature discussion
    & clinical trials

Depression

Definition
Depression also is known as major depressive disorder is a mental disorder that affects how one feels, thinks, and behaves and can lead to other emotional and physical problems. Depression often causes a persistent feeling of sadness and can interfere with most aspects of life.1

Symptoms
Signs and symptoms of depression in kids and teenagers have similarities with adults, but there can also be some differences. For most individuals, the symptoms of depression are so severe that it interferes with daily functioning.1

The most common symptoms may be:

  • Persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness, anxiety, restlessness, and hopelessness
  • Difficulty with memory, concentration, and making decisions
  • Short temper and self-blame
  • Reduced appetite and weight loss or increase appetite and weight gain
  • Loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities
  • Change in sleeping patterns e.g. insomnia or sleeping too much
  • Suicidal thought or recurrent thoughts of death
  • Unexplained physical problems

Cause
Up to this date, the exact cause of depression is not yet known. Factors that can increase the development of depression are:1

  • Physical changes in the brain
  • Hormonal changes
  • Genetics
  • Changes in the function and effect of neurotransmitters involved in controlling mood
  • Cannabinoids
  • Cannabinoid receptors
  • Endocannabinoids

  • CBC
  • CBD
  • CBG
  • THC

  • 5-HT1A
  • CB1
  • α2r

  • 2AG
  • Anandamide
  • OEA
  • Terpenes
  • Strains
  • Enzymes
  • Metabolites

Terpenes

Strains

Synthesizing & Degrading Enzymes

Metabolites

The connection between Depression
& cannabinoids

Depression Xray Brain Man

Preclinical evidence proposes that the cannabinoids CBD, CBG, CBC, and especially THC may be therapeutic in the treatment of depression, as these cannabinoids may possess anti-depressant properties.2
In addition, it is suggested that the endocannabinoid system plays a role in the development and treatment of depression.3

Note: If you have any further information relevant to the connection between Depression and cannabinoids, or find any of the information inaccurate, outdated or incomplete please contact us here.

Text references, literature discussion
& clinical trials

  • Text references
  • Literature discussion
  • Clinical trials
Review

In animal models for depression (forced swimming and tail suspension tests), Δ9THC was found to exert anti-depressant effects at 2.5 mg/kg (El-Alfy et al., 2010). Similarly, CBD (200 mg/kg) and CBC (20 mg/kg) were shown to have anti-depressant properties, whereas CBG and CBN did not produce anti-depressant effects.

Another study showed that the plant cannabinoid CBG can activate α2 receptors, interact with CB1 and CB2 as well as block CB1 (Cascio et al., 2010), proposing that CBG may have a therapeutic potential in treating depression.

In rats, antidepressant-like activities were exhibited by administration of CBD into the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, possibly through indirect activation of CB1 and 5-HT1A (Sartim et al., 2016).

Exercise has been found to be helpful for patients with AD and depression. In a study with rats, exercise caused the formation of new neurons in the hippocampus. Furthermore, in the hippocampus (but not in the prefrontal cortex), anandamide levels (and to lesser degree 2AG levels) and CB1 receptor availability were elevated.

Blocking the endocannabinoid system can affect the formation of new neurons (i.e. prevent new neuron generation), proposing that cannabinoids are involved in this process (Hill et al., 2010).

In one study with mice, it was shown that oral OEA (1.5 – 6 mg/kg) ameliorated depression-like behaviors, proposing that OEA may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of depression (Jin et al., 2015).

References
Clinical trials

Want to know more about Depression?

Then signup our FREE newsletter below