Cystitis

Cystitis is a medical condition described by inflammation of the bladder caused by a bacterial infection (often known as a urinary tract infection).

  • What is Cystitis?
  • Cystitis & cannabinoids
  • Text references, literature discussion
    & clinical trials

What is Cystitis?

Definition
Cystitis is a medical condition described by inflammation of the bladder caused by a bacterial infection (often known as a urinary tract infection). Cystitis can be very painful, and the infection can spread to the kidneys if medical attention and treatment are not provided.1

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters., bladder, and urethra, and all are involved in removing waste from the body. The kidneys play a role in filtering waste from the blood and controlling the concentrations of many substances, while ureters are involved in carrying urine from the kidneys to the bladder.1

Symptoms 1

  • A persistent, more frequent, and increased urge to urinate
  • A burning feeling during urinating
  • Blood in the urine (hematuria)
  • Strong-smelling and cloudy urine
  • Pelvic discomfort and pressure in the lower abdomen

Bacterial cystitis (UTI)
Urinary tract infections primarily happen when outer bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and start to multiply. In most cases of cystitis, E. coli bacteria. can cause this infection. However, in women, cystitis can be caused by sexual intercourse or due to the genital area harboring bacteria.2

Non-infectious cystitis
If cystitis is not caused by a bacterial infection, other  non-infectious factors may play a role in the development of cystitis:1

  • Interstitial cystitis
    Chronic inflammation of the bladder
  • Drug triggered cystitis
    Particular medications may cause inflammation of the bladder
  • Chemical triggered cystitis
    Hypersensitivity to chemicals in products in e.g. hygiene sprays
  • Radiation cystitis
    Inflammatory changes in bladder tissues caused by radiation treatment of the pelvic area
  • Foreign-body cystitis
    Long-term use of a catheter may increase the risk of bacterial infection and tissue damage
  • Cystitis may develop as a complication of other disorders
  • Cannabinoids
  • Cannabinoid receptors
  • Endocannabinoids

  • CBG

  • CB1
  • CB2
  • PPARα
  • TRPV1

  • Anandamide
  • PEA
  • Terpenes
  • Strains
  • Enzymes
  • Metabolites

Terpenes

Strains

  • FAAH

Metabolites

The connection between Cystitis
& cannabinoids

Cystitis Graphic Doctor Hands

The cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2, TRPV1, and PPARα are expressed in the bladder and other tissues of the urinary tract, suggesting therapeutic potential with cannabinoids in the treatment of cystitis.3

Note: If you have any further information relevant to the connection between Cystitis and cannabinoids, or find any of the information inaccurate, outdated or incomplete please contact us here.

Text references, literature discussion
& clinical trials

  • Text references
  • Literature discussion
  • Clinical trials
Review

In a rat study, bladder inflammation pain was shown to be induced by anandamide via TRPV1. This proposes that TRPV1 may be used as a therapeutic target (Dinis et al., 2004).

On the contrary, by increasing the level of anandamide through inhibiting its breakdown by FAAH, potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects have been observed (Wang et al., 2015).

In a study with female rats, upon induction of cystitis with cyclophosphamide, an increase was found in PEA and CB1, PPARα was decreased and CB2 was unaffected (Pessina et al., 2014). PEA was found to reduce pain and bladder voiding. CB1 and PPARα antagonists blocked this effect.

Several studies observed that CB2 was found to be increased with cystitis (Merriam et al., 2008; Tambaro et al., 2014) and that stimulation of CB2 with PEA or anandamide reduced pain and inflammation (Jaggar et al., 1998; Wang et al., 2013, 2014).

Acetylcholine-induced contractions in the bladder were shown to be reduced by CBG, proposing a potential effect in treating bladder disorders (Pagano et al., 2015).

References
Clinical trials

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