Active Ingrediens

– with biochemical Interactions

Studies have shown that the efficacy of cannabinoids can be optimized when combined with other active ingredients. In the CannaSen products, we have used several active ingredients to optimize the overall effect on each product.

On this page, you can find more information about all ingredients used in the CannaSen products, the origin, function, and application form.

Active Ingrediens – How they work!

CBD

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
CBD is one of the many phytocannabinoids found in Cannabis sativa and it makes up to 40% of the plant´s extract.1

Effect/function
CBD has demonstrated to act as an anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, analgesic. Further, CBD has been shown to have neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, among others.2

Application
Therapeutic cannabis products can be used in patients with chronic arthritic and musculoskeletal pain.3 CBD is currently used in some products with oils, supplements, gums, and high concentration extracts to treat illnesses.4

Menthol

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Menthol is the major byproduct found in Mentha species and is made synthetically or is found naturally.5

Effect/function
Menthol helps increase the permeability of CBD through the skin barrier and activate the micro blood circulation.

Application
Menthol can be used to relieve minor muscle or joint pain.6 Menthol can be used in pharmaceuticals, oral care products, tobacco products, confections, chewing gums, perfumed products, and lotions.5

Camphor

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Camphor is a bicyclic monoterpene ketone present extensively in plants, especially Cinnamomum camphora.7

Effect/function
Camphor helps increase the permeability of CBD through the skin barrier and activate the micro blood circulation.

Application
Camphor can be used to relieve minor muscle or joint pain.6 Administered on a particular place of the body and used as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.7

Isopropyl Myristate

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Isopropyl Myristate is a moisturizer which exhibits polar properties.8

Effect/function
Permeability agent for actives to penetrate the skin barrier.

Application
Cosmetics and topical medical preparations.8

Ethanol

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Ethanol is a clear, colorless liquid with bactericidal properties.9

Effect/function
Permeability agent for actives to penetrate the skin barrier.

Application
It can be used as a topical disinfectant, solvent, preservative in pharmaceutical preparations, and the primary ingredient in alcoholic drinks.9

Boswellia-AKBA

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Boswellia is a tree known under the Burseraceae family. 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) is a boswellic acid (BA) found in the gum resin of B. serrata and B. carteri.22

Effect/function
Boswellia serrata plays a role in reducing pain and improving knee-joint functions. Due to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, Boswellia serrata is beneficial in relieving joint pains.23 BA has shown to trigger expectorant, antiseptic, anxiolytic, anti-neurotic, tranquilizing, and antibacterial effects as well as can suppress different signaling pathways connected to cell survival and growth, metastasis.22

Application
Boswellia serrata can be used to reduce pain in joints.23 One study on arthritis demonstrated that oral administration of BAs mitigated the leukocyte population and suppressed its infiltration into the knee joint. BA can be used in the treatment of chronic diseases (cancer, inflammatory disorders, metabolic disorders, as well as psoriasis).22

Bromelain

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Bromelain is an enzyme, a mixture of different thiol endopeptidases and other components found in the fruit or stem of pineapple.24

Effect/function
Bromelain has anti-inflammatory, fibrinolytic, anti-edematous, antithrombotic, and anti-cancerous properties. It is absorbable in the body and does not have major side effects. It also plays a role in promoting apoptotic cell death.24

Application
Bromelain may be used as an adjunctive treatment for osteoarthritis.25 Bromelain can be used in the treatment including angina, pectoris, bronchitis, sinusitis. In the long run, bromelain can act as an effective health supplement to preclude cancer, diabetes, and various cardiovascular diseases.24

Curcumin

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Curcumin is a polyphenol present in the rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and has been prevalent as a medical herb in Asian countries.26

Effect/function
The main ingredient of curcuminoids is curcumin which exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.27 Curcuma longa exhibits antimutagenic, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities.26

Application
Curcumin can be used to alleviate the symptoms of joint arthritis.27 Curcumin can be used in many different branches including in soaps, cosmetics, energy drinks, ointments, tablets, capsules. Turmeric that contains curcumin can be used in curries, tea as well as an anti-inflammatory agent, antiseptic, colorant, and many others.26

Black pepper

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a medicinal plant that contains a pungent alkaloid “piperine” found in many tropical regions such as Brazil, Indonesia, and India.28

Effect/function
Piperine, the active ingredient in black pepper increases the bioavailability of drugs, nutrients, and vitamins.29 Piperine has antioxidant, antitumor, anti-asthmatics, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal properties, among others.28

Application
A study demonstrated that piperine significantly diminished the pain and arthritic symptoms in rats.28 Black pepper is used in the perfumery, as a medicinal agent, a preservative, used in different sauces and dishes.28

UC-II undenatured type II collagen

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
UC II is a patented form of undenatured collagen type II to support join health.30

Effect/function
It may be involved in inducing the natural rebuild of cartilage in joints, improving joint comfort, mobility, and flexibility. Type II Collagen plays a role in preserving joints and maintaining cartilage. Further, it plays a role in starting cartilage protective pathways to hinder the immune system from damaging its own cartilage while promoting cartilage repair and regeneration.

It is believed that T cells that specifically target UC II undenatured type II collagen, become T regulatory cells when UC II undenatured type II collagen is transported across the gut epithelial cells to the underlying immune cells. Activated T regulatory cells move from the gut-associated lymphoid system to the circulation where they recognize UC II undenatured type II collagen. The T regulatory cells secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines that inhibit the normal breakdown of UC II undenatured type II collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins.30,31,32

Application
In an animal study of rheumatoid arthritis, it has been demonstrated that a small intake of oral UC II undenatured type II collagen boosts the production of key cells and cytokines connected with the induction of oral tolerance while diminishing arthritis symptoms. In vitro study by Müller et al. it was demonstrated that IL-10, one of the anti-inflammatory cytokines is involved in diminishing the destructive effects of TNF-alpha. The amount of TNF-alpha cytokine has been shown to be higher in osteoarthritis that harms chondrocyte survival and cartilage function. Bagchi and colleagues have shown that UC II undenatured type II collagen has biologically active epitopes to trigger oral tolerance. Further, research shows that the undenatured type II collagen is involved in symptom relief and protects against joint damage.30,31

Vitamin C

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Vitamin C or also known as ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin present naturally in citrus fruits, green peppers, red peppers, strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli, brussels sprouts, turnip, Indian gooseberry, and other vegetables.33

Effect/function
Vitamin C is vital in the process of collagen formation (collagen is an essential component of bone matrix).34 Vitamin C is an antioxidant that assists with endothelial cell proliferation and also connected with the production of collagen IV in endothelial cells (and therefore supporting normal function of bones).33 Vitamin C is important for the development and maintenance of connective tissues and this vitamin is involved in wound healing, maintenance of healthy gums. Vitamin C is also involved in metabolic functions and it also has antioxidant activities to protect the body from free radical damage.33 Vitamin C contributes to maintain the normal function of the immune system and normal collagen formation for the normal function of cartilage. Vitamin C is involved in protecting cells from oxidative stress.

Application
It was demonstrated that vitamin C intake may be useful to prevent incident knee osteoarthritis.35 Vitamin C is a therapeutic agent in many diseases and disorders including diabetes, cold, cancer, among others.33

Vitamin D3

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Vitamin D is fat-soluble and one of the lipophilic vitamins. Cholecalciferol is a form of vitamin D3 and is present in some natural dietary products, food fortified with vitamin D. People also get vitamin D after sun exposure.36

Effect/function
Vitamin D plays an important role in bone health37 and contributes to maintaining the normal function of the immune system. Vitamin D plays a role in protecting the integrity of the skeletal system. Vitamin D is involved in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism. Vitamin D is involved in the proliferation and maturation of keratinocytes. Due to this role, vitamin D may be as an essential local therapeutic option to treat psoriasis.36,37,38 

Application
A study found that larger vitamin D administration might be related to a decreased risk to have rheumatoid arthritis. Vitamin D can be used to prevent rickets in children, osteoporosis in adults, and osteomalacia and can be used in many forms of dietary supplements. Vitamin D3 is the preferred agent for medical use due to vitamin D3 being more pharmacologically potent than vitamin D2.36,38,39,40

Hempseed oil

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Hempseed oil contains linoleic acid (polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid) and alpha-linolenic acid (polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid). Hempseed oil also has Gamma-linoleic acid and stearidonic acid.41

Effect/function
Ingredients in hempseed oil can have antibacterial and/or antimicrobial properties, as well as omega-3 PUFA, can exhibit anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic activities.42

Application
Hempseed oil has been used as a food/medicine. It may be used over a wide range of acute and chronic conditions including burns, influenza, cuts, skin problems, other allergic symptoms, and inflammatory diseases. Recently, hemp seed oil can be found in specialty food shops in Europe and North America. A clinical study about topically applied hemp seed oil has shown that it has a beneficial effect to heal mucosal skin wounds after surgery (eye, nose, and throat).41

Vitamin A (retinyl acetate)

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Vitamin A (retinyl acetate) is a fat-soluble vitamin and it is known that people consume 2 types of vitamin A: provitamin A found in plants and preformed vitamin A found in the animal source.43

Effect/function
Vitamin A is vital in the process of wound healing (like healing skin wounds). Vitamin A plays a vital role to increase the activity of the immune system and contributes to controlling infections and even malignancies. Vitamin A plays a role in seeing in dim light and preserves the integrity and normal functioning of glandular and epithelial tissues. It plays a role in supporting skeletal growth and protecting against some epithelial cancer as well as acting as an anti-infective agent. Retinyl Acetate has anti-aging properties.43,44,45 Vitamin A contributes to the maintenance of normal mucous membranes.

Application
Vitamin A can be used to prevent certain diseases such as psoriasis, acne, AIDS, alcoholism, atopic dermatitis, cataracts, cervical dysplasia, among others.43 Retinyl acetate can be used in face and eye creams, body lotions, sun lotions, lip products, and baby creams.45

Vitamin B12

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Vitamin B12 also known as cobalamin is a water-soluble vitamin of microbial origin and is naturally present in animal food products such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, and other dairy products. B12 or cobalamin exists in several forms such as the cyano-, methyl-, deoxyadenosyl- and hydroxy-cobalamin forms.46,47

Effect/function
Vitamin B12 contributes to the normal function of the immune system & has a role in the process of cell division. B complex vitamins are required to maintain healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver.48 Vitamin B12 plays an important role in hematopoiesis, neural metabolism, DNA and RNA production, and carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. B12 is also involved in improving iron functions in the metabolic cycle and helping folic acid in choline synthesis.49

Application
Vitamin B12 used in prescribed drugs and supplements, the Cyano form of vitamin B12 being the most widely used.46,47

Probiotic

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Probiotics are live bacteria that are naturally present in gut microbiota. Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) is a spore-forming, heat-resistant probiotic and has properties of both the Bacillus and Lactobacillus genera.50

Effect/function
Regular probiotic intake plays a role in preventing digestive problems. Probiotics (such as Lactobacillus Plantarum P8) are involved in diminishing some stress and anxiety symptoms via anti-inflammatory properties. Pathogens can be suppressed by several probiotic mechanisms. These mechanisms are 1. Through increasing the lactic acid production, which decreases the pH of food; 2. Probiotics produce antimicrobial substances and compounds; 3. The production of secretory Immunoglobulin A is stimulated by probiotics. Probiotics could play a role in strengthening and modulating the immune system, preventing tooth decay, could exhibit anticarcinogenic activity, could protect from diseases, and be potent against coronary heart disease.50,51

Application
A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study included over 100 individuals. It was found that stress and anxiety in stressed adults may be facilitated by daily supplements of the probiotic Lactobacillus Plantarum P8. The intake of this probiotic also had a positive effect on improved memory and cognitive abilities.51

The effects of mood, anxiety, and cognition were analyzed by ten studies. Compelling evidence is available that probiotics can alleviate depressive symptoms but further studies are needed.52

Another study by Nyangale et al. examined if immune and gut functions could be improved by daily intake of [B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30)] in male and female aged 65-80 years. It was demonstrated that populations of good bacteria in gut microbiota could be boosted and the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines could potentially be enhanced in elderly adults if BC30 is consumed daily.53

In one study, serum cholesterol levels were assessed in patients with high cholesterol when using B. coagulans Unique IS2. It showed a slight reduction in total cholesterol and LDL as well as an increase in HDL cholesterol without adverse effects from B. coagulans Unique IS2 administration.

Another study investigated the usefulness of B. coagulans Unique IS2 as an oral supplementation in patients with bacterial vaginosis. Indian women suffering from bacterial vaginosis were treated with probiotics. It was found that the women who received probiotic treatment had an 80% decrease in vaginosis symptoms compared to the control group.

Sudha et al. examined the effect and safety of B. coagulans Unique IS2 in 28 patients with acute diarrhea. Patients were treated with B. coagulans Unique IS2 capsules twice a day for ten days. It was found that abdominal pain, duration of diarrhea, and frequency of defecation were diminished in the presence of B. coagulans Unique IS2.53

Probiotics can be used in dairy products and various commercial food products.50

Rhodiola rosea-Rosavins

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Rhodiola Rosea (R. rosea) is a flowering plant that belongs to the plant family Crassulaceae and is found at high altitudes and northern latitudes. Rhodiola rosea contains Rosavin which is the only unique compound in the plant.54,55

Effect/function
Rhodiola rosea plays a role in boosting cellular immunity and humoral immune function. Rhodiola rosea possesses protective effects in diseases such as sepsis. This works by diminishing apoptosis, enhancing Th1 cytokines, and boosting the host´s immunity via the regulation of TIPE2 expression. Rhodiola rosea exhibits anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-aging, cardio-protective, and neuroprotective effects. It may also play a role in facilitating depression symptoms, decreasing fatigue, and enhancing performance.54,55,56

Application
Rhodiola rosea has been used for cancer and tuberculosis, also used in newly married couples to increase fertility and in Vikings to boost stamina and physical strength as well as in hair wash and food. Also, it can be used to treat phlegm cough, injuries, burns, leucorrhoea, and diabetes.54,56

Ashwagandha-Withanolides

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Ashwagandha or “Indian Winter Cherry”, “Indian Ginseng” is an essential herb of Ayurveda known for its health benefits. Ashwagandha contains several compounds such as alkaloids, steroidal lactones (withanolides), and saponins.57

Effect/function
Ashwagandha has anti-stress, neuroprotective, antitumor, anti-arthritic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties.57

Application
Ashwagandha can be used in different diseases including Parkinson, dementia, memory loss, stress-triggered diseases, malignoma, used as a household remedy by Indians.57

Zinc gluconate

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Zinc gluconate is a zinc salt of gluconic acid and the FDA considered this as a safe substance.58

Effect/function
Zinc plays a vital role in tissue repair.59 Zinc exhibits antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity and that it may reduce sebum production.60 Zinc gluconate as a nutritional supplement delivers a required amount of zinc. Zinc is an essential trace element that plays a role in many biological processes, has antioxidant activities, and makes the immune system stronger.61 Zinc contributes to the maintenance of normal skin, contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress & has a role in the process of cell division.

Application
Zinc gluconate can be used as a trace mineral supplement and as a lozenge to treat common colds as well as can be used in zinc deficiency. Zinc supplementation becomes crucial to treat diarrheal episodes in children and studies propose that the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes may be diminished for up to 3 months if both zinc and oral rehydration solution would be combined.58

L-Selenomethionine

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Selenomethionine or L-selenomethionine is an amino acid found in some plant materials including cereal grains, soybeans, and enriched yeast.63

Effect/function
Selenium as an antioxidant can help in reducing oxidative stress, suggesting that selenium supplementation could be possible for the management of patients suffering from severe forms of psoriasis. In vivo, selenomethionine acts as an antioxidant. It is involved in depleting reactive oxygen species and helps in the formation and recycling of glutathione.63,64,65 Selenium is needed for the maintenance of the normal function of the immune system. Selenium is needed to maintain healthy hair growth as its deficiency can lead to hair loss.91

Application
Selenomethionine can be used in biochemical laboratories and a number of experimental studies have found that selenomethionine is appropriate as nutritional supplementation for selenium.63,66

Hesperidin-bioflavanoide citrus

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Flavonoids or known as bioflavonoids are polyphenolic compounds and hesperidin is the predominant flavonoid found in citrus fruits (sweet orange, lemon, and in juices than contain these citruses).67

Effect/function
Hesperidin has anti-inflammatory properties, gives better bioavailability for the body, and stabilizes vitamins within the tissues (like vitamin C).68,69 Hesperidin plays a role in capturing free radicals, acts as an antioxidant, and has radical scavenging properties.67

Application
Hesperidin may be used to manage an array of cutaneous conditions. Some studies have shown that hesperidin is also good in wound healing, anti-skin cancer and other skin disorders.70

L-Cysteine

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Cysteine is a non-essential amino acid present in the human body (beta-keratin, the main protein in nails, skin, and hair).71 In health stores and pharmacies, cysteine supplement can have a label as “L-cysteine”.72

Effect/function
CCN1 (cysteine-rich protein 61) plays a role in cell proliferation, inflammation, among others, was demonstrated to enhance IL-1β production via p38 MAPK signaling, suggesting that CCN1 might potentially be involved in regulating inflammation in psoriasis.73 Cysteine plays a pivotal role in protein synthesis, detoxification, various metabolic functions, collagen production, skin elasticity, and texture.71

Application
Cysteine can be used as an antidote, counter paracetamol toxicity, treat glutathione synthetase deficiency in various infections, in cosmetic areas, among others.74

L-glutamine

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
L-glutamine is a non-essential amino acid found in the body.75

Effect/function
L-glutamine exhibits anti-inflammatory activity (can be possibly used in autoimmune diseases).76 L-glutamine plays a role in metabolic processes. Plays a role in carrying nitrogen in the body and it is an essential energy source for many cells.75

Application
FDA approved L-glutamine to use in sickle cell disease.75

Dead Sea Salt

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Dead Sea Salt is found in the Dead Sea. Dead Sea Salt is enriched in minerals including Magnesium, Calcium, Sodium, Zinc, Potassium, Sulphur and this particular salt has 10 times more minerals compared to the normal sea salt.77

Effect/function
Improves skin barrier function, increases skin hydration, and reduces skin inflammation. Dead Sea Salt has an osmotic effect and a humectant effect.

Application
Dead sea salt can be used for health and therapeutic properties.77

Aloe Barbadensis Leaf

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Aloe Barbadensis Leaf is found in the Aloe plant.78

Effect/function
Protects and repairs the skin, acts as a skin lubricating agent, limits the number of flare-ups, and keeps the skin hydrated.

Application
Aloe Barbadensis Leaf can be used as a cosmetic ingredient.78

Panthenol

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Panthenol is derived from pantothenic acid, is a white crystalline powder, and exists in two forms (a racemic mixture of dexpanthenol and levopanthenol).79,80

Effect/function
Panthenol acts as a skin conditioner. Dexpanthenol (the active form in Panthenol) is involved in boosting fibroblast proliferation, accelerated re-epithelialization in wound healing and it has shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity, is a topical protectant and moisturizer.80

Application
Panthenol can be used in cosmetics.79 Dexpanthenol can be used in a variety of topical products like ointments and lotions to promote healing and relieve itching in treating dermatological conditions.80

Retinyl Palmitate

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Retinyl Palmitate or Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin.45

Effect/function
Forms healthy skin and normal healthy skin cells. Retinyl Palmitate has anti-aging, antioxidant, and stabilizing properties.45

Application
Retinyl Palmitate can be used in cosmetic products, face and eye creams, body lotions, sun lotions, lip products, and baby creams.45

Tocopheryl Acetate

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Tocopheryl Acetate or also known as vitamin E is composed of tocopheryl and acetic acid.81

Effect/function
Has antioxidant properties. Plays a role in fighting signs of aging, stimulating skin healing, and strengthening the skin´s protective barrier.81

Application
Can be used in cosmetics, serums, moisturizers, and sunscreens.81

Hydroxyethyl cellulose

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Hydroxyethylcellulose is derived from polysaccharide.82

Effect/function
Permeability agent for actives to penetrate the skin barrier.

Application
Hydroxyethylcellulose can be used in household cleaning products, lubricants, cosmetics and used as an ingredient in ophthalmic pharmaceutical preparations.82

L-methionine

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Methionine is an essential amino acid, meaning it is not produced by the human body and has to be gotten with food.83

Effect/function
Methionine plays an important role in growth and tissue repair, and improving the tone and flexibility of skin, hair, and making the nails stronger. The sulfur in methionine plays a role in safeguarding cells from pollutants, decreasing the rate of cell aging, and plays a crucial role in the absorption and bioavailability of zinc and selenium. Methionine has lipotropic properties and chelates heavy metals. Moreover, excess fat buildup in the liver is prevented by methionine.83

Application
Methionine can be used as a nutritional supplement, urinary acidifier, as an antidote against paracetamol poisoning among others.83

L-cystine

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Cystine is a non-essential amino acid and a derivative of cysteine.84

Effect/function
L-cystine has a positive impact on hair and nails (maintained and even improved hair and nail condition).85 Cystine has antioxidant properties and safeguards tissues against radiation and pollution as well as decreasing the rate of the aging process. Cystine plays a role in assisting protein synthesis. Cystine also plays a role in burn and wound healing and is needed for proper vitamin B6 utilazation.84,86

Application
Can be used as a nutrient supplement.86

Biotin

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Biotin belongs to the group of B vitamins and it is a water-soluble vitamin.87

Effect/function
Biotin is often suggested to use for the hair and nails strengthening and it plays a role in aiding with the transfer of carbon dioxide and ensuring a steady blood sugar level. Biotin is needed in cell growth and it plays a role in the production of fatty acids, metabolism of fats, and amino acids. It is also involved in releasing energy from food (Kreb cycle).87

Application
Biotin is available in cosmetic and health products (hair and skin).87

Vitamin B6

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Pyridoxine is the form of vitamin B6 and it is a water-soluble vitamin found in many foods.88

Effect/function
B vitamins have a positive impact on hair and nails (maintained and even improved nail and hair condition).85 Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) is crucial for supporting normal functions in the body.88 Vitamin B6 is involved in cognitive development and in ensuring normal levels of amino acid homocysteine. It also plays a role in gluconeogenesis (the production of glucose via metabolic pathway) and glycogenolysis (glycogen breakdown), immune function, and hemoglobin production.89

Application
Pyridoxine can be used to treat vitamin B deficiency. Vitamin B6 can be used as a dietary supplement.88,89

Pantothenic acid

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin B5 present in plants and animal tissues.90

Effect/function
Pantothenic acid is involved in preventing too early hair graying and restoring their natural color. It is involved in proper hair growth, provides hair proper moisture, exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, pantothenic acid safeguards, exhibits moisturizing activity, controls functioning of sebum glands, and speeds up melanin creating.91Pantothenic acid exhibits antioxidant activity, it is a growth factor and plays an important role in the metabolism and synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.90

Application
Pantothenic acid can be used as a food additive, in personal care products such as cosmetics, shampoos etc.90

B12-methylcobalamin

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Methylcobalamin is a form of vitamin B12 present in foods.92,93

Effect/function
B complex vitamins are required to maintain healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver.48 Methylcobalamin is involved in aiding synthesis of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine, needed for the integrity of myelin, plays a vital role in neuronal function, proper production of red blood cells, and DNA synthesis.92

Application
Methylcobalamin can be used in the treatment of various disorders (cardiovascular and degenerative) diabetes, anemia, hyperhomocysteinemia. It can be used in medicine, nutrition, and animal feed supplements.92,93

Propylene Glycol

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Propylene glycol is a synthetic liquid that belongs to the class of organic compounds.94

Effect/function
Propylene glycol functions as a skin-conditioning agent-humectant and acts as a solvent, among others.94

Application
Propylene glycol can be used in many areas including as an antifreeze in pharmaceutical, chemical, and food industries, in certain medicines, cosmetics, or food products. It can also be used for food colors and flavors, in the paint and plastic industries as well as to make polyester compounds.94

Glycerin

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Glycerin is a sugar alcohol that exists as a water-soluble, clear, almost colorless, odorless, viscous liquid.95,96

Effect/function
Glycerin plays a role in improving skin hydration. It also functions as an emollient and demulcent.96,97

Application
Glycerin can be used in skin cream and lotions, urethane foams, alkyd resins, drugs, foods, tobacco, dentifrices, and cosmetics.96

Redensyl

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Dihydroquercetin-glucoside (DHQG), epigallocatechin gallate glucoside (EGCG2), glycine, zinc chloride, meta-bisulfite, glycerin, and water are found in Redensyl.98

Effect/function
DHQG plays a role in increasing the metabolism of dermal papilla fibroblasts (HFDPc), activating hair follicle stem cells (ORSc) division, keeping ORSc stem cells differentiation capacities. DHQG also plays a role in keeping ORSc stem cells properties and safeguarding ORSc from apoptosis. EGCG2 derivatives exhibit anti-inflammatory activity, play a role in invigorating the proliferation of dermal papilla fibroblasts (HFDPc), capturing free radicals, and supporting human hair follicle growth. Glycine and zinc play a role in hair metabolism. Glycine is a major component of specific hair proteins (keratin). Zinc is vital for the incorporation of cystin into keratin.98

Application
In vitro assessment, it was demonstrated that HFDPc viability/metabolism is stimulated by DHQG and ORSc proliferation is stimulated by DHQG. The stimulation of the expression of two proliferation markers (Ki67 and PCNA) was triggered by DHQG. DHQG addition also triggered the stimulation of gene expression connected to cell survival functions and cell differentiation. The stimulation of the expression of two stem cells markers K15 and VDR was triggered by DHQG.98

EGCG2 was shown to have anti-inflammatory properties due to its significant ability to diminish the release of IL-8 (21%) by normal human keratinocytes in inflammatory conditions. Redensyl diluted at 0.1% has been shown to exhibit anti-apoptotic activity on ORSc.98

In Ex vivo experiments, the growth of alopecic hair follicles was significantly triggered by Redensyl.98

A clinical study showed that the hair growth cycle was improved in participants suffering from alopecia when using 3% of Redensyl.98

1.5 pentanediol

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
1.5 pentanediol exists as a colorless, thick, oily liquid and is bitter in taste.99

Effect/function
1.5 pentanediol (in this article named as pentane-1,5-diol) functions as a solvent to unplug the hair follicle and functions as an enhancer for the uptake of nutrients.1.5 pentanediol acts as a moisturizer, preservative and exhibits antimicrobial and antifungal activities.99,100

Application
1.5 pentanediol can be used for hair loss, cold sores, nail and feet problems, eczema.99

Capixyl

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Capixyl consists of two ingredients: biomimetic peptide (acetyl tetrapeptide-3) and red clover extract rich in Biochanin (powerful flavonoid).101,102

Effect/function
Biochanin A acts on 5-α-reductase. The enzyme 5-α-reductase converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to limit the miniaturization of follicles. Capixyl assists in decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to a normal hair cycle. Acetyl tetrapeptide-3 is involved in improving ECM protein integrity, leading to better hair anchoring. Acetyl tetrapeptide-3 is involved in invigorating ECM proteins and boosting hair follicle size and improving hair anchoring.101,102

Application
It was demonstrated that the treatment with Acetyl tetrapeptide-3 improved hair follicle length by 35% just after eight days compared to control. Thirty men suffering from androgenetic alopecia were included in the test. Fifteen were given Capixyl lotion (5%) and the other fifteen were in the placebo group. Capixyl lotion participants applied 20 drops daily or placebo for a period of four months. A digital trichogram was used to evaluate its effect on day 0 and after four months. A visible increase in the anagen hair density and a strong decrease in the telogen hair density were triggered by Capicyl.101

Isopropyl palmitate

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Isopropyl palmitate is a fatty acid ester produced from palmitic acid and isopropyl alcohol.103

Effect/function
Isopropyl palmitate has a role as a physical stabilizer, emollient, solvent, emulsifier, film former, and spreader.103,104

Application
Isopropyl palmitate can be used in topical formulations, creams, lotions, eye makeup, alcohol hair lotions, and aftershave preparations.103,104

Triethanolamine

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Triethanolamine exists as a colorless to pale yellow viscous liquid with a weak odor of ammonia.105

Effect/function
Triethanolamine (in this article named as TEA) acts as a surfactant or pH adjuster and most of the other TEA ingredients have a role as surfactants, skin- conditioning agents, or hair conditioning agents. Triethanolamine has softening, emulsifier, humectant, plasticizer properties among others.105,106

Application
Triethanolamine can be used in cosmetics, fragrances, household detergents, metalworking fluids, polishes, emulsions, and food products etc.105,106

Sodium Hyaluronate

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Sodium Hyaluronate is the sodium salt and a derivative of hyaluronic acid.107

Effect/function
Sodium Hyaluronate has skin conditioning properties. It also plays a role in wound healing and has skin moisturizing properties.108,109

Application
Sodium Hyaluronate can be used in cosmetics.108

Arginine

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Arginine is an essential amino acid in people of young age and often present at the active site in proteins and enzymes. In mammals, the development stage and health status of the individual will determine whether arginine will be semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acid.110

Effect/function
Arginine invigorates microcirculation, providing essential nutrients for hair bulb growth. Arginine and vitamin B5 can help sustain the hair roots and strengthen the fiber.111 Arginine is involved in increasing the production of nitric acid, fighting fatigue, and invigorating the immune system. It also plays a role as an essential intermediate in the urea cycle and in the detoxification of nitrogenous wastes.110

Application
Arginine may be used for the prevention and treatment of heart and circulatory diseases. It can be used in personal care products, cosmetics, lotions, manufacturing, food packaging etc.110

Caffeine

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Caffeine is a methylxanthine alkaloid  and a psychostimulant present in tea and coffee.112

Effect/function
Caffeine is involved in stimulating hair follicle growth and improving hair shaft elongation. It also plays a role in extending the duration of anagen and invigorating hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation. In addition, insulin-like growth factor-1 expression, a stimulator of hair growth, can be enhanced by caffeine in men and women’s hair follicles.113 Caffeine has anti-inflammatory and psychotropic properties and it is involved in stimulating neurotransmitter release. Caffeine also functions as a stimulant in the central nervous system. It also plays a role in relaxing smooth muscle, boosting athletic performance, enhancing gastrointestinal mobility.112,114

Application
Caffeine can be used in the form of coffee and has shown to be potential in treating androgenetic alopecia (hair loss disorder).112,113 Some studies in vitro and in vivo have shown that innate and adaptive immune responses were modulated by caffeine. Human lymphocyte function was also inhibited by caffeine, indicating that T-cell proliferation was diminished, and the production of cytokines was impaired. Furthermore, studies demonstrate that antibody production is inhibited by caffeine. Generally, these studies show that caffeine exhibits large anti-inflammatory activity.112 Caffeine can be used to tackle the respiratory conditions of the premature newborn, relieve pain, and fight sleepiness. Caffeine can also be used in cosmetic products.114

Citric acid monohydrate

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Citric acid monohydrate is an organic acid present in citrus fruits.115

Effect/function
Citric acid is involved in ensuring the stability of active ingredients, exhibits antioxidant activity, and has a role as a preservative. It also acts as a pH controller and has anticoagulant properties.115

Application
Citric acid can serve as excipients in pharmaceutical preparations.115

Xanthan Gum

Origin, occurrence, characteristic
Xanthan Gum is a polysaccharide gum and a derivative of Xanthomonas campestris.116

Effect/function
Xanthan Gum functions as an emulsifying, thickening agent and stabilizer.116,117

Application
Xanthan Gum can be used as a food additive, cosmetic products, deodorants.116,117

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