Anxiety

Anxiety is a group of mental disorders that leads to persistent, intense, and excessive worry or fear about everyday situations. Anxiety can interfere with most aspects of a patient’s life.

  • What is Anxiety?
  • Anxiety & cannabinoids
  • Text references, literature discussion
    & clinical trials

What is Anxiety?

Definition
Anxiety is a group of mental disorders that leads to persistent, intense, and excessive worry or fear about everyday situations. Anxiety can interfere with most aspects of a patient’s life.
In addition, anxiety is often accompanied by a range of physical symptoms such as trembling, muscular tensions, dizziness, and palpitations.1

Symptoms may include

  • Restlessness, nervousness, and feeling tense
  • Hyperventilation
  • Sweating
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Avoiding triggers of anxiety

Cause
Up to this date, the cause of anxiety is not yet fully understood. However, several risk factors such as underlying health issues (both mental and physical), trauma, stress, certain personality types, drugs or alcohol, and genetics may play a role in the development of anxiety.1

  • Cannabinoids
  • Cannabinoid receptors
  • Endocannabinoids

  • THC
  • CBD

  • 5-HT1A
  • GPR55

  • 2AG
  • Anandamide
  • Terpenes
  • Strains
  • Enzymes
  • Metabolites

  • Caryophyllene
  • Limonene

  • MAGL
  • DAGL

The connection between Anxiety
& cannabinoids

Anxiety Brain Scan

Evidence from preclinical studies has indicated that CBD and anandamide (AEA) exert anxiolytic activities and control linked to fear.2

The role of cannabinoids in anxiety is ambiguous. THC can either elicit or inhibit anxiety, whereas CBD has anxiolytic properties and thus can help counteract potential anxiogenic activities. of THC.3

Note: If you have any further information relevant to the connection between Anxiety and cannabinoids, or find any of the information inaccurate, outdated, or incomplete please contact us here.

Text references, literature discussion & clinical trials

  • Text references
  • Literature discussion
  • Clinical trials
Review

Mice exposed to chronic restraint stress were shown to have downregulated levels of GPR55 and its activation decreased anxiety-like behaviors, including also PLC-PKC and RhoA-ROCK pathways (Shi et al., 2017).

Cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic injuries, inflammation, pain, anxiety, nausea, and drug-withdrawal symptoms can possibly be treated by MAGL inhibitors, which showed potential therapeutic action (Chen et al., 2012; Kohnz & Nomura, 2014; Mulvihill & Nomura, 2013).

It was demonstrated that knockout mice lacking DAGL-α had reduced brain 2-AG levels (1/5`th of normal), reduction of AEA, and enhanced fear and anxiety responses (Jenniches et al., 2016).

In spontaneously hypertensive rats it was shown that CBD exhibits anxiolytic but not antipsychotic activities (Almeida et al., 2013).

References
Clinical Trials

In healthy volunteers, administration of THC, but not CBD was shown to be connected to anxiety, dysphoria, and psychotic symptoms (Martin-Santos et al., 2012).

In one trial, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and discomfort in a speech performance were reduced by 600 mg of oral CBD (Bergamaschi et al., 2011).

CBD was also shown to help increase the extinction of fear memories (Das et al., 2013). Similarly, THC was found to help increase fear extinction in humans (Rabinak et al., 2013).

Increased activity in the limbic regions of the brain which play a role in emotional processing was shown to be connected to the anxiolytic effects of CBD (Crippa et al., 2004).

The 5-HT1A receptor may be involved in mediating the anxiolytic action of CBD (Russo et al., 2005).

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