AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic and potentially fatal disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

  • What is AIDS?
  • AIDS & Cannabinoids
  • Text references, literature discussion
    & clinical trials

What is AIDS?

Definition
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic and potentially fatal disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), that damages the body’s immunes system and thereby interferes with the body’s ability to combat infections and diseases.

HIV is usually referred to as a sexually transmitted infection but it can also be transmitted through blood, from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, and breast-feeding. Currently, no cure is available for HIV/AIDS, though medication is available to reduce the virus to such an extent that it cannot be measured and allows patients to live a close-to-normal life.1

HIV & the immune system
HIV damages the immune system by destroying certain white blood cells known as CD4 cells that help fight infections and diseases. The virus infects the CD4 cells and uses the machinery of the CD4 cells to replicate itself. New viruses then exit the host cells and infect other CD4 cells. During the infection, the CD4 cells will be destroyed which the immune system will respond by creating more CD4 cells.
However, if the immune system does not produce enough CD4 cells as the infection progresses, the virus amount will rise and the immune system will not be able to create CD4 cells fast enough to replenish its loss, leading to symptoms and eventually developing of AIDS.  As the destruction of CD4 cells is a process, it may take years before HIV has weakened the body’s immune system to the point that it has developed into AIDS. However, modern medication can reduce the virus to such an extent that it prevents HIV from developing into AIDS.2

Symptoms
HIV and AIDS symptoms can differ which depend on the stage of infection.1

Primary infection
Also known as acute HIV, the infection occurs within two to four weeks after the virus has entered the body. The initial symptoms of the infection may last a few weeks with flu-like symptoms though with some symptoms being so mild that they will go unnoticed. At this first phase of the infection, the virus load in the body is rather high which leads the infection to spread more rapidly during primary infection compared to the later stage.

Clinical latent infection
Also known as chronic HIV, in phase two HIV is still present in the body and in white blood cells, however, many people may not experience any symptoms during this phase. Phase two may last for many years if not treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Symptomatic HIV infection
In the third phase, you may develop mild infections, symptoms, or chronic signs of HIV, as the virus continues to multiply and destroy your immune cells. The symptoms may include:

  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • Oral yeast infection (thrush)
  • Shingles (herpes zoster)
  • Pneumonia

Progression to AIDS
If untreated, HIV may develop into AIDS within eight to ten years. At this last phase, the body’s immune system is severely damaged to such an extent that the body is vulnerable to developing diseases including opportunistic cancer and infections that normally do not cause any illness in a healthy immune system.1

  • Cannabinoids
  • Cannabinoid receptors
  • Endocannabinoids

  • THC
  • CB2
  • Terpenes
  • Strains
  • Enzymes
  • Metabolites

Terpenes

Strains

Synthesizing & Degrading Enzymes

Metabolites

The connection between AIDS
& cannabinoids

Aids (1)

Clinical data proposes that cannabinoids may be used in the therapeutic treatment of AIDS-related symptoms. Furthermore, THC and other compounds may help reduce virus production and viral spread. Due to the nature of the disease, both oral and sublingual applications as well as inhalation may be beneficial.3

In addition, it was observed that cannabinoids may help reduce inflammation and strengthen the immune response.4

Note: If you have any further information relevant to the connection between AIDS and cannabinoids, or find any of the information inaccurate, outdated or incomplete please contact us here.

Text references, literature discussion
& clinical trials

  • Text references
  • Literature discussion
  • Clinical trials
Review

In rhesus macaques, it was found that viral load development and mortality from Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (the monkey equivalent of Human Immunodeficiency Virus) can be significantly decreased when using THC (0.32 mg/kg, twice daily, intramuscular) (Molina et al., 2011).

Chronic administration of THC exhibits a protective effect. This effect is at least partially due to THC’s ability to induce intestinal anti-inflammatory microRNA expression (Chandra et al., 2014).

It was shown that viral load was reduced, expression of pro-inflammatory MCP-1 was decreased, and mortality was also reduced via chronic treatment with THC, which showed persistent therapeutic value.

Several negative side effects such as loss of memory attention and motor function were caused by THC use, however, these side effects were only transient (Winsauer et al., 2011).

Trans-activating factors (Tat) are secreted by infected cells, which are consequently involved in attracting macrophages and macrophage-like cells.

It was shown that migration of macrophages can be blocked by THC in a concentration-related manner via CB2 receptors (Raborn and Cabral, 2010).

Denbinobin is a non-cannabinoid compound present in Cannabis.

Binding of transcription factor NFκB to DNA can be prevented by Denbinobin and as such can stand in the way of certain diseases such as AIDS and cancer.

As an example, denbinobin can be involved in suppressing HIV-1 replication and consequently preventing viral spread.

References
Clinical trials

In one randomized cross-over trial, neuropathic pain associated with AIDS was shown to be reduced when smoking medicinal cannabis (Ellis et al., 2009).

In a study completed by 28 participants where they were treated with both cannabis and placebo, 46% of the participants achieved at least 30% pain relief when using cannabis compared to 18% for the placebo group.

In another study among seroconverted patients, it was found that high-intensity cannabis use was connected to lower viral loads (Milloy et al., 2014).

A 58-year-old patient was given dronabinol (a synthetic cannabinoid) in an attempt to reduce nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain secondary to intestinal dysmotility. Dronabinol was shown to help achieve almost complete remission of the patient’s symptoms. This supports that dronabinol can be used in AIDS-related anorexia and chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting (Taylor and Schwaitzberg, 2015).

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