Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be often treated by stimulants known as amphetamines.
Increased monoamine neurotransmission in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens (NAC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) brought on by amphetamine, is the cause for the drug´s behavioral effects.
In a rat study, it was discovered that CB1 activation is required for the therapeutic effect of amphetamines (Kleijn et al., 2012).
This offers the chance that current amphetamine treatment may be supplemented or replaced by the treatment of ADHD with cannabinoids.
It was shown that ADHD is a heritable disorder.
A genetics study showed that small variations/mutations (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in the CB1 gene (CNR1) are tightly connected to ADHD (Lu et al., 2008).
Similar to OCD, there is a connection between cannabis use and the incidence of ADHD.
The prevailing opinion existed that the use of cannabis may precipitate ADHD. An alternative opinion is arising that self-medication with cannabis may inhibit symptoms in people that tend to develop psychiatric disorders like ADHD (De Alwis et al., 2014; Bidwell et al., 2014; Loflin et al., 2014).
More research is needed to identify whether cannabinoids impact ADHD positively or negatively or potentially do both.