Acid Reflux

Gastroesophageal acid reflux disease (GERD) is a common chronic condition where acid formed in the stomach leaks through the esophageal sphincter.  

  • What is Acid Reflux?
  • Acid Reflux & cannabinoids
  • Text references, literature discussion
    & clinical trials

What is Acid Reflux?

Gastroesophageal acid reflux disease (GERD) is a common chronic condition where acid formed in the stomach leaks through the esophageal sphincter. The acid then irritates or erodes the lining of the sphincter called the esophageal epithelium.2

People suffering from GERD may experience symptoms including a burning sensation in the chest, difficulty swallowing, and chest pain among other symptoms.2

  • Cannabinoids
  • Cannabinoid receptors
  • Endocannabinoids

  • THC

  • CB1
  • CB2

Plant Cannabinoids

  • Terpenes
  • Strains
  • Enzymes
  • Metabolites



Synthesizing & Degrading Enzymes


The connection between Acid Reflux
& cannabinoids

Acid Reflux Scan xray

Cannabinoid receptors can be found in both esophageal epithelial cells and neurons in the esophageal myenteric plexus., which may be involved in controlling esophageal function..
In addition, data have shown that THC plays a role in decreasing acid reflux.
However, further studies are needed to find out the full connection between the endocannabinoid system in gastro-esophageal function and the potential treatment of this disease with plant cannabinoids.2

Note: If you have any further information relevant to the connection between Acid Reflux and cannabinoids, or find any of the information inaccurate, outdated or incomplete please contact us here.

Text references, literature discussion
& clinical trials

  • Text references
  • Literature discussion
  • Clinical trials

CB1 receptors are expressed by human oesophageal epithelial cells and in Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease these receptors are downregulated (Calabrese et al., 2010).

CB2 receptors are found in the digestive tract (Salaga et al., 2017), however, they are not expressed in human esophageal epithelial cells (Calabrese et al., 2010).

In a study with mice, it was shown that CB2 receptor agonists in a dose-dependent manner exhibit a protective effect against ethanol and diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers. CB2 antagonists reversed this effect (Salaga et al., 2017).

It was found that in the myenteric plexus of the esophagus human CB1 and CB2 receptors are expressed abundantly (Rohof et al., 2012).

In mice, gastric acidity and ulceration can be reduced by increasing ambient endocannabinoid levels through blocking MAGL (Crowe and Kinsey, 2017).

In dogs and human volunteers, the number of Transient Lower Esophageal Sphincter Relaxations was reduced by THC. CB1 antagonist SR141716A blocked this effect, proposing participation of CB1 (Beaumont et al., 2009).

Clinical trials

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